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Uncovering the structure of the ribosome allowed scientists a closer look at the mechanisms involved with ribosome function. More specifically for example, according to "The ribosome goes Nobel" article by Rodnina and Wintermeyer, in the "Trends in Biochemical Sciences" journal, knowledge of the structure of the ribosome revealed details of the translation process like "how the ribosome checks for proper codon—anticodon interaction by establishing specific contacts in the decoding site".

More recently, ribosomes prove to have huge clinical potential as targets for antibiotic products. With the overuse of antibiotics and antibiotic resistance constantly on the rise, ribosomes could be the basis of new antimicrobials that would retaliate against the infamous antibiotic resistance. Ribosomes found in the cytosol that are not bound to any other organelle are known as free ribosomes.

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These ribosomes are known to produce non-hydrophobic proteins that ultimately function in the cytosol. An example would be the catalysts for the first steps of sugar breakdown. These ribosomes are what give rough endoplasmic reticulum its "rough" appearance. Proteins that are produced from the ribosomes of the rough ER are sent through the lumen of the endoplasmic reticulum, modified within the ER, and then is exported in a vesicle to the cis face of the golgi apparatus, where the protein undergoes further modification.

Enzymes transform their substrates through the active site residues. This transformation can allow for the direct participation in chemical catalysis, such as facilitation of proton transfer reactions and covalent chemistry. These active-site residues can form the covalent bond acting as general acid-base or as nucleophiles.

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The ribosomes undergo general acid-base or nucleophilic catalysis. The residues can also be structural complement to the transition state TS , dissolve or reorganize water molecules, and decrease the delta S entropy by using the binding energy. In the elongation process, the ribosome PTC catalyzes the aminolysis of the ester bond: the alpha amino group of the A-site aminoacul tRNA acts as nucleophile and attacks the P-site peptidyl tRNA at the carbonyl carbon of the ester bond that connects the tRNA and the peptide.

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In order to efficiently form peptide bonds amines react with esters. This reaction is fast with the help of the ribosome because it makes the reaction rate increase by approximately - folds. Before the peptide bond is formed, the aminoacyl tRNA connects to the A site at a rate of 10 s-1 which is much slower than the rate of the tertiary complex forming a peptide bond. These substrates bind to the ribosome fast to react with the P-site substrate in order to allow for the direct analysis of their chemistry relationship.

Recently, methods of analysis using kinetic, biochemical, genetic, and computation allow for more progress in ribosome crystallography. However, there are still many questions regarding the proton transfer mechanism. Peptidyl transfer by the ribosome accompanies a decrease in the entropy activation, which provides more understanding of ribosome catalysis involves defining the molecular mechanism that make entropy of activation lower by taking into consideration the substrate, position of the active site, desolvation, and electrostatic shielding.

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When cells are in stress, disease condition, and normal condition, RNA damage occurs. Exposing to ultraviolet light, oxidation, chlorination, nitration and alkylation result in chemical modifications to nucleobases, generating the potential of triggering ribosome degradation pathways. There are several sources of errors in ribosome synthesis such as the alternation in rRNA sequences occur in cis and the failure to bind to or loss of an assembly factor or ribosomal protein occur in trans. Beside these main sources, specific growth conditions can also cause certain effects in ribosome synthesis.

For example, starvation requires excess ribosomes which are turned over efficiently [6].

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These processes engage in hundreds of individual error-causing reactions [8] [9]. In addition, many ribosomal proteins also perform non-ribosomal functions, so the functions in these processes which are not directly connected to ribosome biogenesis are currently being assigned to ribosome synthesis factors RSFs.

Due to the large number of reactions that occur in ribosome assembling pathway, the possibility of error occurring is very high such as the potential harms for cell viability and human health. For example, inability to bind correctly to or loss of a synthesis factor can cause the production of erroneous ribosomes such as lacking part of ribosomal proteins or carrying misfolded rRNA which will affect on translation. As a result, cells develop control mechanism to avoid such problems. For example, instead of participating in later steps, synthetic factors that involved in late cytoplasmic ribosome assembly steps can first bind with pre-rRNAs at early stages, bringing pre-ribosomes to productive synthesis pathways [10].

There are many pathways that have been known to control the structural integrity of mature RNA molecules [11]. This experiment gave result in the identification of non-functional rRNA decay, a pathway that detects and eliminates dysfunctional parts of mature ribosomes [13]. The pathway goes from having the addition of short poly A tails with the actual binding between TRAMP complex and RNA, and these two commit deviated molecules to degradation.

This is done by separating them from the normal RNA and by stirring exosomal activity [14].

Structural Biochemistry/Volume 2

Growth-inhibiting conditions cause ribosome synthesis to shut down. The synthesis of complex molecules from simple molecules such as amino acids and sugars is obstructed and existing pre-ribosomes and mature ribosomes are directed towards bulk degradative pathways. To manage stress, and to adapt to a new environment, pre-ribosomes and mature ribosomes are passed on to be recycled for important cellular components. Autophagy is a catabolic mechanism that takes unnecessary or dysfunctional cellular components and performs cellular degradation through the lysosome, or the vacuole in yeast and plants.

Macroautophagy involves the development of a double membrane around the organelle, this together known as an autophagosome. Macroautophagy and microautophagy are both crucial to a cell's survival during starvation. Both mechanisms associate common trans -acting factors, and both are essentially bulk degradative processes. However, studies show that selective types of both channels exist. Ribophagy is the process in yeasts in which both small and large ribosomal subunits are are delivered to the vacuole through selective macroautophagy.

This process is caused by prolonged nitrogen starvation and specific only to ribosomal subunits. The increased turnover kinetics of large subunits are dependent upon the Ubp3 ubiquitin protease and its activator Bre5. Increased turnover rates of small subunit are scantly affected when mutations arise in UBE3 or BRE5, indicating independent pathways of ribophagy.

However, for small ribosomal subunit ribophagy, the effector remains unknown. Alterations in RNA can cause ribosome degradation, some of which can lead to serious diseases. RNA damage are not only results of stress and disease situations, as they occur during normal cell growth as well. Some cases of ribosomal RNA damage inflicted by UV radiation and oxidation have lead to human neurodegenerative diseases, such as Alzheimer's, Parkinson's, and atherosclerotic plaques.

Yeast cells that are exposed to high levels of ROS fragment Mature 5. In exosome complexes that are hypersensitive to the drug, these accumulations are distressed, proposing that nucleolar surveillance is what is responsible for the degradation of 5-FU. In the core of every ribosome, which is the protein factory, there are ribosomal proteins. Recent research indicates that these core proteins can differ between ribosomes under different growth conditions and that these differences confer the ability to more efficiently translate specific subpopulations of mRNA.

Ribosomes exist in every living organism for the same purpose, to synthesize proteins from mRNA. Previously, it was thought that ribosomes were homogenous and lacked any structural diversity. In addition to core variants, post-transcriptional modification of the ribosomal RNAs leads to additional structural differentiation, and therefore functional specialization. For ribosomes to be functionally specialized it requires that the producing cell be sensitive to changing environmental conditions such that the ribosomes being synthesized exhibit biochemical differences that affect translation.

Sykes, and James R. Gilbert WV. Epub Jan Ribosome synthesis is a multi-step, error-prone process. The ribosome is comprised of 2 subunits of unequal sizes. These subunits carry out specialized functions within translation such as mRNA decoding for the smaller unit and a peptidyl-transfer reaction for the larger subunit. In eukaryotes, the ribosomes consist of 4 rRNAs and about 80 ribosomal proteins. To synthesis, mature and transport the individual components of ribosomes and assemble them, requires the intervention of approximately protein trans-acting factors as well as numerous amounts of small nucleolar RNAs snoRNAs.

These are involved in the hundreds of invididual, error-prone, reactions.

"The dead are restless here..."

There are some functions in processes that don't connect directly to ribosome biogensis and are then assigned to ribosome synthesis factors such as connections to cell cycle progression, or pre-mRNA splicing and DNA damage response. Because there are so many reactions within a ribosome assembly pathway, the possibility to introduce a mistake with potential deleterious consequences are immense.

Such things such as failure to bind or loss of a synthesis factor could lead to a structurally defective ribosome that hold functional consequences in translation. In response to such problems, the cells evolved multiple quality control mechanisms. However, that is not to say that mutations only occur during synthesis as mutations can also occur as a consequence of exposure to genotoxic stress.

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