As owner of Cowboy College, Adele Donnelly makes it a rule never to get involved with her guests. Especially not a famous and footloose cowboy whose life is all about traveling the rodeo circuit. But Ty is more than just another handsome faceand getting pregnant with his baby wasn't in Adele's long-term game plan. Because men like him can't be tied down.
And she's not used to family sticking around. Why should Ty be any different? Should she give the cowboy a chance to be a championship daddy? Marin Thomas. The M. Jacqueline Diamond. The Detective's Accidental Baby. The Texan's Cowgirl Bride. Trish Milburn. The Surgeon's Surprise Twins. Cathy Gillen Thacker. Leigh Duncan. Roz Denny Fox.
Tomas: Cowboy Homecoming. Linda Warren. Rebecca Winters. Samantha's Cowboy. Tina Leonard. Barbara White Daille. My Favorite Cowboy. Shelley Galloway. A Cowboy's Promise. Laura Marie Altom. Mary Leo.
Julie Benson. His Lost and Found Family.
Sarah M. Colorado Christmas. One Wild Cowboy. Jeannie Watt. Marie Ferrarella. Amanda Renee. Kathleen Eagle. Cowboy Boots for Christmas. Carolyn Brown. A Callahan Wedding. Stella Bagwell. E S 29 be found all along the front range of the Appalachians, from Pennsylvania south to the Carolinas. They laid claim to the lands of Indian peoples, who found themselves pressed to the mountain walls. Although the population in Canada climbed from fifteen thousand in to more than seventy thousand by mid-century, it was relatively puny compared with the English colonial behemoth. In the absence of large numbers, French colonial policy in North America aimed at blocking British expansion by a system of trade networks and alliances with Indian peoples.
The French worked to strengthen their great crescent of military posts and isolated settlements extending down the Saint Lawrence to the Great Lakes, and then reaching the whole length of the Mississippi River to the Gulf of Mexico. In these French frontier communities, the continued intermarriage between colonial men and native women meant that groups of metis lived in every French settlement.
Indians played a role in all of these conflicts, European national rivalries fanning ancient tribal hostilities. Such wars decimated many Indian peoples but strengthened others. By the late seventeenth century, for example, the Iroquois Confederacy was one of the most important empires in North America.
Neither Indians nor Europeans understood the colonial wars as racial conflicts of "red man" versus "white man," but rather as a kind of free-for-all, with every group fighting for itself, allied as circumstance and interest demanded. Indian fought Indian and colonist fought colonist at least as much as Indian fought colonist. Many of the North American wars had European origins, but they also had colonial aims. What English colonists called King William's War began in in a dynastic quarrel among European monarchs but was fought in America over access to the rich fur grounds of the north and west.
It ended with a European treaty of that established an inconclusive peace.
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Indians played an important part on both sides. This war officially ended in , but English slave traders encouraged their Indian allies among the Creek Confederacy to continue attacks against natives allied with Spanish Floridians and French Louisianans. Over the next quarter-century, these raids destroyed the last of the Spanish mission stations of Florida.
Thousands of mission Indians were captured and sold into slavery in the Caribbean, and thousands more were killed or dispersed. The Creeks would resettle Florida. E B can slaves from South Carolina as well as other Indians in the area to form a new mixed group known as the Seminole nation.
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The word Seminole itself is an interesting linguistic example of cultural interchange. It originated in the Spanish cimarr6n, meaning "wild" or "untamed," which colonists in Florida used to refer to fugitive slaves living with the Creeks. The Muskogee language of the Creeks has no r sound, so when the Indians used the word, they pronounced it "cimaloe," which eventually became Seminole. Renewed struggles over royal succession in the s resulted in renewed warfare between Great Britain and France.
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The Iroquois Confederacy supported the British, but, like other native peoples, they were unhappy because they felt under siege. Most notorious was a series of seizures of Delaware lands by the colony of Pennsylvania, notably the "Walking Purchase" of Under terms negotiated by William Penn a half-century before, the Delawares agreed to cede lands vaguely bounded by the distance a man could travel in a day and a half.
The Indian understanding was that this was to be a walk taken at the "common" pace, pausing at noon for a midday meal and a pipe. But Pennsylvania authorities prepared a cleared path for a group of specially trained "walkers" who ran and covered more than sixty miles in the specified time.
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Overturning William Penn's legacy of fair dealing, the Walking Purchase was a disturbing sign of things to come. Another omen was the Indians' growing dependence on European traders and their goods, which included tools, weapons, and clothing, but also liquor-much liquor. Alcohol abuse among the Indians was one of the signs of the disorientation that colonialism introduced.
Liquor was illegally manufactured in New England distilleries from contraband sugar smuggled in from the West Indies. During the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries, the alcohol trade to the Indians was much like the modern cocaine business, with the traders acting like drug lords. By the mid-eighteenth century, violent drunken scenes had become commonplace features of Indian life in eastern North America. The struggle between Britain and France for control of North America reached its climax in what a later generation of Americans would call the French and Indian War.
E B 31 backcountry settlers. The French feared that the loss of the Ohio would threaten their entire North American empire. To reinforce their claims, in the French sent a heavily armed force of Canadians and Indians down the Ohio to warn offthe British, and in they began constructing a series of forts that extended south from Lake Erie to the forks of the Ohio River, the junction of the Allegheny and Monongahela rivers.
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In response, the British strengthened existing forts and built new ones along the frontiers, and the king conferred an enormous grant of land on the Ohio Company, organized by Virginia and London capitalists. The company made plans to build a fort of its own at the forks of the Ohio. The coming conflict did not merely involve competing colonial powers. In addition to its native inhabitants, the Ohio Country became a refuge for Indian peoples who fled from the colonial coast.
Most of these Indians opposed the British and were eager to preserve the Appalachians as a barrier to westward expansion. Indian diplomats understood that it was in their interest to perpetuate the existing colonial stalemate. Their position would be greatly undermined in the event of an overwhelming victory for either side. In the governor of Virginia sent Colonel George Washington, a young militia officer, to expel the French from the region granted to the Ohio Company on the western frontier.
But confronted by a superior force of Canadians and Indians, Washington was forced to surrender his troops.
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From their base at Fort Duquesne at the forks of the Ohio, the French now commanded the interior country. The next year General Edward Braddock of the Scottish Coldstream Guards led westward toward the fort more than two thousand British troops and fifty Indian scouts from Virginia.
Among them was Colonel Washington. The French and their Indian allies ambushed them, and in the worst defeat of a British army during the eighteenth century, Braddock lost his life. Braddock's defeat was the first of a long series of setbacks for the British.
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As a result, Prime Minister William Pitt, an enthusiastic advocate of colonial expansion, committed the British to the conquest of Canada and the elimination of all French competition in North America. Pitt dispatched more than twenty thousand regular British troops across the Atlantic, and in combination with colonial forces he massed more than fifty thousand men against French Canada. These measures succeeded in reversing the course of the war. A string of British victories culminated in the taking of one of the western frontier's key posts, Fort Duquesne, in , which was renamed Fort Pitt and later Pittsburgh.
The decisive British victory came in British forces converged on Quebec, the heart of French Canada. Wolfe and his men devised a scheme worthy of a wilderness scout: a night maneuver up a cleft in the bluffs two miles behind the city.